26 de setembro de 2012

Artigo recomendado: Postoperative Urinary Retention

Anesthetic and Perioperative Considerations

Gabriele Baldini, Hema Bagry, Armen Aprikian, Franco Carli

Anesthesiology, V 110, No 5, May 2009

Urinary retention is common after anesthesia and surgery, reported incidence of between 5% and 70%. Comorbidities, type of surgery, and type of anesthesia influence the development of postoperative urinary retention (POUR). The authors review the overall incidence and mechanisms of POUR associated with surgery, anesthesia and analgesia. Ultrasound has been shown to provide an accurate assessment of urinary bladder volume and a guide to the management of POUR. Recommendations for urinary catheterization in the perioperative setting vary widely, influenced by many factors, including surgical factors, type of anesthesia, comorbidities, local policies, and personal preferences. Inappropriate management of POUR may be responsible for bladder overdistension, urinary tract infection, and catheter-related complications. An evidence-based approach to prevention and management of POUR during the perioperative period is proposed.

BLADDER catheterization is a common procedure during inpatient major surgery that allows monitoring of urine output, guides volume resuscitation, and serves as a surrogate marker of hemodynamic stability. With an increase in outpatient and fast-track surgical procedures, perurethral catheterization is restricted to fewer procedures and for a limited time. Awareness and identification of patients at risk of developing postoperative urinary retention (POUR) thus assumes greater significance. POUR has been defined as the inability to void in the presence of a full bladder. The widely varying reported incidence of POUR reflects its multifactorial etiology and the lack of uniform defining criteria. This paper reviews the physiology of micturition and analyzes the perioperative factors that contribute to POUR. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of POUR are also provided.

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